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3. History of Civilization (3.16-3.17)

3.16    The Age of Enlightenment and Reason

The so called “Age of Enlightenment” refers to the philosophic revolution in Europe during the 18th century. As the Holy Roman Church was unable to keep up its strength against the Protestant movement, an increasing number of people dared to talk and think in a ways that hadn’t been possible (officially) for centuries.

The tyranny, the superstition, the irrationality and the traditions which had become parts of life during the Holy Roman Empire’s many ethic and moral persecutions made intellectual leaders of the Enlightenment movement a brave elite who was leading the world towards freedom of thought and speech.

Prominent philosophers such as Voltaire and Rousseau questioned and attacked existing institutions of both Church and the States in the areas like ethics, faith, aesthetics, astronomy, science and natural philosophy. Despite the old tyrannies was declining there were still secret Catholic orders like the Jesuits who worked actively against such movements.

The Enlightenment movement also provided a framework for the revolutions in America and France, as well as leading to the rise of capitalism and the birth of socialism. This is the age when secret societies within the higher elites flourished. Towards the end of the 18th century a today well known secret society named “Illuminati” grew quickly all over Europe and as quickly as they grew, they also mysteriously disappeared in the first years of 19th century. Conspiracy theorists believe they survived and are still highly operative in the Great Conspiracy named “The New World Order”.

The understanding of history and the way conspiracy theorists puts Illuminati in a negative light seems contradictious. The general movement of the time was political understanding of ideologies like socialism, capitalism and the separation between church and state. It seem unlikely that a secret society would attract a wide spread elite if they had negative goals. One can wonder if the conspiracies surrounding the Illuminati could just be simple inventions of those who feared them. We’ll dig into that later in this dossier.

3.17    Ottoman (Osmanic) Empire

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire

Ancestors of the Western Turks, called “Seljuk Turks” in the northern parts of Persia (modern Iran) moved into mainland during the 13th century after a century of defending the Islamic world against Crusaders from the West. From within the Seljuk Turks the Ottoman state slowly raised and was declared independent by Osman I in year 1299. The so called Ottoman Empire had taken its first steps into becoming one of the worlds greatest Empires ever which at the height of its power, included Anatolia, the Middle East, parts of North Africa, and south-eastern Europe.

The biggest capture was Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey) in year 1453 which contained the last remnants of the Byzantine Empire. Constantinople became the capitol and between 1517 and 1922 the Ottoman Empire was synonymous with the Caliphate, the Islamic State. The Ottomans eventually lost territories in the Balkans, Thrace, Syria, Palestine and Iraq to the Allied forces in World War I. Ottomans continued to fight against Russia in Caucasus. The Russian forces retreated after the Communist revolution which led to a great victory for the Ottomans. This victorious Ottomans army was taken home to the occupied Istanbul to later win the Turkish War of Independence (1918-1923). The modern republic of Turkey was founded on October 29, 1923 from the remnants of the fallen empire.

The Ottoman Empire was ended.



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