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3. History of Civilization (3.15.6-3.15.11)
Written by Messiah   
Thursday, 06 July 2006

3.15.6    The Renaissance

The term “Rebirth” (French: Renaissance) was first used by the Italian historian Giorgio Vasari, year 1550. He described the artistic and scientific activities starting in Italy in the 13th century as new era which created a new life for the whole society. People rediscovered ancient learning’s of art and science as well initiated intellectual activities which resulted in a revitalization of European culture in general. The Renaissance marks the transitional period between the end of the middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Age.

3.15.7    The Reformation

As the Renaissance open the minds for new ways of thinking, it paved the way for criticism. On October 31, 1517, Martin Luthers so called “95 Theses” were nailed to the door of the Castle Church as an open invitation to debate with Catholic leadership. The 95 Theses were widely copied and printed and within two months they were known throughout whole Europe. This was the first known event in history were media’s role became a power of itself, which also led to increased support for the media and the press.

These events became the main front in the so called the Protestant Reformation movement which was a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. This weakened the Church and many local dukes saw the chance to oppose the Emperor which led to series of conflicts. The Empire became divided into religious formations which led to establishment of new institutions like for example: Lutheranism, the Reformed churches and Anabaptists. This also led to a Counter-Reformation within the Roman Catholic Church, which parallel too many other events also included the creation of secret order societies like the Jesuits, Capuchins, Ursulines and Theatines. A century of conflicts all over Europe emerged. The so called “Thirty Years War” (1618-1648) initiated when Bohemians rebelled against the Emperor. A devastating war for the Empire, were powers like France and Sweden intervened and seized considerable chunks of territory for themselves.

3.15.8    Death of René Descartes

The well known philosopher Descartes officially died of pneumonia during a few months visit to Stockholm, Sweden 1650. He was invited by Queen Kristina who was know to be in a situation were she was considering turning to Catholicism. In 1980, a 330 year old letter posted from Queen Kristina’s personal doctor was found in the archives at the Leyden University of Holland. The letter contained information that raises questions concerning Descartes death. Was he poisoned to death? If he was, did it have anything to-do with Queen Kristina’s interest in Catholicism?

3.15.9    The Decline

The slow decline of the Empire now had begun. The Order of the Teutonic Knights, who had been the Catholic successful brut force army since the early days of protecting pilgrims, was also declining and suffered a great loss when the Grandmaster, Albert of Brandenburg, converted to Lutheranism in 1525. The Habsburgs (English: Hawk Castle) which already was a major ruling house of Europe, maintained to be a strong, with the still loyal Teutonic Knights.

During the 18th century, the Habsburgs were involved in many European conflicts, which almost all were defeats. The last Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire were the Archdukes of Austria, which all were products of the Habsburgs ruling house. Turning into 19th century they became the primary target of Napoleon and his French Army which later dissolved the Empire formally on August 6, 1806 when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated.

The Holy Roman Empire was ended.

3.15.10    The Austrian Empire

However, when Francis II lost the Emperor of the Roman Empire title, he instead declared himself the Emperor of the Austrian Empire. Francis II’s family would continue to call themselves Emperors until 1918. The still active Order of the Teutonic Knights remained by their side.

Since the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, June 1815, Europe had experienced almost a century of peace. Beside some Ethnic minorities who made them heard in the regions of the Habsburgs, no-one could assume that Europe stood was on the edge of global scale war. In the summer of 1914 a minor event shocked the entire continent and the “The Great War” was a fact.

3.15.11    The beginning of the Holy State

A secret society named “The Carbonari” became known in the early 19th century. They created the early revolutionary activities in Naples against the King of the two Sicilies, Fredinand I. They forced the king to concede their own written constitution in 1820. One year later the Carbonari’s little revolution was ended by agents of the "Holy Alliance" between Austria, Prussia and Russia mastered by the Habsburgs. The Carbonaries as well as many other liberal were executed.

The Carbonari’s little revolution however was the beginning of a movement which later unified Italy and widened the gape between the powerful Roman Church and the newly formed state of Italy.

In 1870, the Italian government declared war against the Papal States. The Italian army entered Rome on September 20. Later the Italian government offered the Leonine City to Pope Piux XI, who rejected it.

Pope Pius IX declared himself a “prisoner in the Vatican”, although he was not actually restrained from coming and going. The period of the so called “prisoner popes” had begun. For the next 59 years, the popes refused to recognize the new Italian state and refused to leave the Vatican.

This period ended with the socialist revolution in 1929 when the fascist leader Mussolini took control over Italy. The so called “Lateran Treaties” established the Vatican as a state and a concordat defined the civil and religious relations, with motto: “free church in a free state”.

The holy state was created.

 

 


 
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