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3. History of Civilization (3.9.6-3.10.2)
Written by Messiah   
Thursday, 06 July 2006

3.9.6    End of the Roman Empire

While the Byzantine Empire continued in the east, the city of Rome slowly was fragmented due to increasing number of conflicts. In year 410, warriors known as Visigoths overran the city. The city of Rome continued to exist, but the old Roman Empire was now dissolved.

3.9.7    East and west Catholic Church separation

East- (Byzantine Orthodox) and West- (Roman) Catholic Church clearly becomes divided in these parts of historic timeline. Rulers of both sides (Pope and Patriarch) excommunicated each others. Historians mark the fall of Rome as the end of ancient history and the beginning of the co called “Middle Ages”, with a millennia of conflicts and great diseases until the region would experience a “rebirth” known as the “Renaissance”.

3.10    The Goths

3.10.1    Origin

Gothic culture show relations with Nordic Bronze Age around 1300BC were artifact as well as linguistic development are prominent. Archaeological evidence shows that there was a general tribal depopulation between year 600 BC and 100 BC in the traditional province of Ostrogothia, in Sweden. This matches settlements found in the northern Germanic regions. The Goths are believed to have crossed the Baltic Sea from Scandinavia and especially from the small island Gotland and the area known as Gotaland in Sweden. Roman historian Gaius Cornelius Tacitus work: “De origine et situ Germanorum” also called “Germania” dated year 98, tell about Scandinavia (Scandza), the Scandinavians and their Gods. This information is extra interesting as it takes another 700 years until next external historical record tells about Scandinavians. Tacitus also relates the Scandinavians with the Britain’s in matter of language and culture. The historian Jordanes, in his work “Getica”, also mentions Scandza to be the origins of the “Goths”.

3.10.2    Interference with Roman Empire

What the Roman Empire called the "Northern Danger" was identified as early as the 2nd century BC. Thou there were many different tribes in the Germanic regions they were migrating with each others, forming larger and more advanced tribes.

It was Caesar who first established the term "Germania", to define the northern threat. The barbarians of the north became a constant problem. It wasn't until the end of the second century, when the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius had a vision of a culture transparent and equal Reich as Germania was willing to co-operate. Marcus was assassinated and his son Commodus became Emperor. Marcus wanted Livus to become Emperor, which most likely was the objective for the assassination. The new Emperor Commodus changed his father’s plans and betrayed the Goths. This betrayal resulted in surprise attacks against settlements who considered Romans to be peaceful. This was the Roman Empires second biggest mistake, which marked the beginning of the end of the Roman Empire.

A force of Goths launched one of the first major "barbarian" invasions of the Roman Empire in 267. This group then settled on the other side of the Danube from Roman territory and established an independent kingdom centered on the abandoned Roman province of Dacia, as the Visigoths. In the meantime, the Goths still in Ukraine established a vast and powerful kingdom along the Black Sea. This group became known as the Ostrogoths. Emperor Decius who was the first Roman Emperor that was killed in battle, died at the Battle of Abrittus in year 251 against the Goths who were led by King Cniva.



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