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3. History of Civilization (3.25-3.25.5)

3.25    Soviet Union

The Russian Revolution emerged right after Russia had entered “the Great War”, due to the increasing power of socialism and the tactics of Lenin. A Russian Civil War was the immediate result after Tsar Nicholas II was pushed off the thrown. The Allied forces intervened in the Russian Civil War, which they feared might become a world socialist revolution. The Allied intervention continued even after the end of “the great war” in 1918.

But Europe was tired of war and the military leader of the newly formed Red Army, Leon Trosky, proved to be a man of great organization and discipline, which in 1922 made him, Lenin and the Bolshevik’s the winners. Over 8 million people had lost their lives in the Russian Civil War when Lenin and the Communist Party, in December 1922, took over power and changed Russian Empire into “The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics” (USSR) also known as “Soviet Union”.

Lenin died of stroke in January 21 1924 after a time of declining health since after both the war and an assassination attempt. As a surprise, Stalin became Lenins heir, were the obvious choice of leader would have been Trotsky. But Stalin had made some “background” moves within the Party which led to his own leadership. Trosky was expelled from the Party in 1927 and from the Soviet Union in 1929, leaving Stalin with undisputed control.

Stalin with his Communist Party, the only permitted political party, introduced the first five-year plan to rebuild the country to a socialist economy in 1928. The state assumed control over all existing enterprises and intensive programs of industrialization was initiated. The raise of a major industrial power was achieved on the cost of widespread misery for some segments of the population.

3.25.1    The Purges

As the party had absolute control, membership meant respect, status and a good contact network. But in an absolute socialistic society with only one permitted party, socialism didn’t really seem to work. This led to so called “Purges”. The definition of “Purge” is to remove “undesirable” people from an organization (most often political), usually by violent means. Purges are often associated with the Stalinist and Maoist regimes but take place all over the globe even today. In the 1930s, during the so called “the Great Purge”, Stalin changed the meaning and being expelled from the party almost certain meant arrest, imprisonment and execution. Stalin ordered, as his general line, his secret police (NKVD) into many operations were artists, scientists, teachers, people in military and communists who dared to disagree with party leadership and others were sent to labor camps or executed. The peak of the purge activities occurred while Nikolai Yezhov led the NKVD from September 1936 to August 1938. Several hundreds of thousands were executed by firing squad and millions were resettled and/or sent to labor camps built under force. The Memorial Society, a human’s right group, has official evidence of almost 1.5 million victims. The real figure still is unknown.

Yet, despite this turmoil, the Soviet Union developed a powerful industrial economy in the years before World War II.

3.25.2    World War II

Stalin didn’t want to get involved in the war and therefore signed the “Nonaggression Pact” with Hitler in 1939. But after Hitler became successful in so many other places, he turned his focused against the Soviet Union and initiated the invasion in 1941. However, Hitler committed the same fault as Napoleon did, a century before, when he underestimated both the Russian/Soviet tactics and the hard winter conditions. The Red Army stopped the Nazi offensive at the battle of Stalingrad in 1943 and pushed them back all the way to surrender in Berlin 1945. Even if the Soviet Union suffered great losses during the war, they quickly establish themselves as one of the two leading powers of the world, beside United States of America.

3.25.3    Post War

As soon as the war was over Soviet Union began to consolidate Eastern parts of Europe to apply Communism as well as established good contacts with Peoples Republic of China to begin spread Communism over the world. The Soviet foreign policy of world wide communism became a threat to the allied nations, which led the so called “Cold War”. Stalin died in 1953 and Khrushchev became his successor. Cold War which was an intelligence tactics war meant new types of repressive actions against the citizens from new types of secret police forces. The Cold War also meant conflicts like the Vietnam War and the Korean War along with an arms race never seen before + much, much more.

The “Cuba Missile Crisis” trembled the world in October 1962. Khrushchev got the stupid idea to put nuclear missiles on the island of Cuba. World War III got as close as it could get, but the crisis was solved in the last few minutes. Two year later, in October 14 1964, was Khrushchev replaced with Leonid Brezhnev due to the aftermath of the Cuba crisis. Soviet economics declined quickly during the 1970s and the 1980s, which increased internal party conflicts. Brezhnev died of stroke in 1982 which led to some four changes of leadership in only 2 years. Brezhnev -> Andropov -> Chernenko -> Mikhail Gorbachev in 1984.

3.25.4    End of Communism

Under the repressive coat of Communism a new movement, known as Solidarity, slowly was formed with Lech Walesa as its lead character. To meet this internal socialistic threat to stability Gorbachev softened up economics, politics and even the frankness of the Soviet Union. But he failed to address the essence of the problem, which led to the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989. Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (RSFSR) had grown dramatically with Boris Yeltsin behind the wheel and in June 1991 he won 57 percent of the popular vote in democratic presidential elections. This was an obvious threat to Communism and in August 1991 Conservatives in the Communism leadership, led by Vladimir Kryuchkov launched the so called “August Coup” in an attempt to remove Gorbachev from power. Gorbachev was rescued and put back to power, but the internal crisis couldn’t be stopped and Yeltsin’s power had grown over the declining USSR structure. In December 1991, Boris Yeltsin, Leonid Kravchuk (Ukrainian president) and Stanislau Shushkevich (Leader of Belarus) jointly announced the dissolution of the USSR and that they would establish a voluntary “Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)” in its place.

Soviet Union with its Communism rule thereby was ended.

Kremlin3.25.5    Raise of the Russian Federation

Yeltsin ordered restoration of Kremlin back to the “look and feel” of the Old Russian Empire. Over the thrown chair in Grand Kremlin Palace, one can now again find the enlightened shining triangle, which is one of the great symbols of Freemasonry. Good or bad, the old enlightened ideals of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great thereby seems to have regained control over Russia. Yeltsins health slowly declined and he retired in 1999, after the consultancies with the so called “Family”. As it seems, there was no predetermined successor to Yeltsin and best choice was the ex-head of KGB, Vladimir Putin. Putin was elected successor to Yeltsin in December 1999 and still is.



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